McMaster IIDR study finds antibiotic resistance predates modern clinical antibiotic use
By Chantall Van Raay
Antibiotic resistance is as old as the mammoth, finds a new McMaster study published today in the science journal Nature.
The findings by Gerry Wright, scientific director of the Michael G. DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research and McMaster evolutionary geneticist Hendrik Poinar, show antibiotic resistance is a natural phenomenon that predates the modern selective pressure of clinical antibiotic use.
“Antibiotic resistance is seen as a current problem and the fact that antibiotics are becoming less effective because of resistance spreading in hospitals is a known fact,” said Wright. “The big question is where does all of this resistance come from?”
After years of studying bacterial DNA extracted from soil frozen in 30,000-year-old permafrost from the Yukon Territories, the researchers were able to develop methods to isolate DNA within McMaster’s Ancient DNA Centre. Using state-of-the-art molecular biological techniques, methods were developed to tease out small stretches of ancient DNA.
Researchers discovered antibiotic resistant genes existed beside genes that encoded DNA for ancient life, such as mammoths, horse and bison as well as plants only found in that locality during the last interglacial period in the Pleistocene era, at least 30,000 years ago. They focused on a specific area of antibiotic resistance to the drug vancomycin, a significant clinical problem that emerged in 1980s and continues to be associated with outbreaks of hospital-acquired infections worldwide.
“We identified that these genes were present in the permafrost at depths consistent with the age of the other DNAs, such as the mammoth. Dr. Brian Golding, McMaster Department of Biology, a bioinformatician colleague showed that these were not contemporary, but formed part of the same family tree. We then recreated the gene product in the lab, purified its protein and showed that it had the same activity and structure then as it does now.”
This is only the second time an ancient protein has been ‘revived’ in a laboratory setting.
Wright said the breakthrough will have important impact on the understanding of antibiotic resistance: “Antibiotics are part of the natural ecology of the planet so when we think that we have developed some drug that won’t be susceptible to resistance or some new thing to use in medicine, we are completely kidding ourselves. These things are part of our natural world and therefore we need to be incredibly careful in how we use them. Microorganisms have figured out a way of how to get around them well before we even figured out how to use them.”
Poinar says this discovery has opened doors for ancient antibiotic resistance research. “We can go back a million years in the permafrost, which is our next goal.”
Funding for this project came from the Canada Research Chairs program, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council.
Photo: McMaster evolutionary geneticist Hendrik Poinar, left, and Gerry Wright, scientific director of the IIDR, are pictured in Wright’s lab located on the second floor of the Michael G. DeGroote Centre for Learning and Discovery. Photo credit: Chantall Van Raay
Gerry Wright: http://www.science.mcmaster.ca/biochem/faculty/wright/index.htm
Hendrik Poinar, Ancient DNA Centre: http://socserv.mcmaster.ca/adna/team-members/hendrik-poinar/
The Age-Old Fight Against Antibiotics (The Scientist)
Genetic basis for antibiotic resistance found in ancient DNA from permafrost (Winnipeg Free Press)
Superbugs Predate Wonder Drugs (Science)
Antibiotic resistance found in ancient bacteria